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How to Make Charcoal from Organic Waste?

Charcoal consists largely of carbon, which is produced in the absence of oxygen. This drives off the water and impurities from the wood while leaving behind carbon. It makes charcoal a better fuel compared to wood, which allows it to burn at higher temperatures, and give off very little smoke. In addition to being cooking or industrial fuel, charcoal is also widely applied as a soil amendment, purification and filtration, etc. It makes charcoal making business promising. But actually, charcoal production dates back to ancient times, and it still prevails. In different areas and times, charcoal has been made by various methods. Keep reading for more details.

Biomass Charcoal
Biomass Charcoal
Charcoal as Fuel
Charcoal as Fuel

1. Charcoal Kiln

The traditional method is essentially a pile of wooden logs leaning in a circle. Then the pile is covered with turf or moistened clay. In order to light the fuel, there will be a chimney or some air holes at the bottom. During the burning process, you should seal the air holes to prevent air from entering. It takes hours to make the mound. Then the logs burn for hours or even days to transform into charcoal and then cool down. During burning, you need to place mud on the cracks if the soil covering gets torn or cracked by the fire.

However, even experienced ones can only get limited charcoal per batch. Besides, the charcoal yield is only between 50-60% by volume and 25% by weight. That is to say, the efficiency is low. Moreover, another major disadvantage is the huge amount of emissions that are harmful to human health and the environment (emissions of unburnt methane). That’s why this production method is almost deprecated.

Charcoal Kiln
Charcoal Kiln
Abandoned Charcoal Kiln
Abandoned Charcoal Kiln

2. Oil Drum Charcoal Retort Kiln

Then the barrel is used to replace the mound method, which is easier to operate and more durable in use. You can find charcoal retort kiln with one or two barrels. It is similar to the traditional charcoal kiln. However, the charcoal yield is higher than the traditional kilning and may reach 35%-40%. But you can get charcoal only. Also, it is more suitable for small-scale investors. In addition, considering its environmental problem, it is also required to be improved. That’s how the biomass carbonization plant is developed.

Oil Drum Charcoal Kiln
Oil Drum Charcoal Kiln
Making Charcoal with Oil Drum
Making Charcoal with Oil Drum

3. Biomass Carbonization Plant

The modern charcoal making plant employs pyrolysis technology. It can work continuously to process a lot of raw materials. For example, Beston charcoal machine is available for 500 to 3000 kg per hour. Except for charcoal, you can also get wood vinegar, tar and combustible gas. All these products are useful. Moreover, it effectively solves the exhaust emission problem. Let’s review the Beston charcoal machine design and how it works.

Beston Charcoal Making Machine
Beston Charcoal Making Machine
Model BST-05 BST-10 BST-20 BST-30
Hourly Feeding Capacity 500 kg 800-1000 kg 1500-2000 kg 2500-3000 kg
Working Method Continuous
Raw Materials 1. All kinds of biomass waste, such as sawdust, coconut shells, palm shells, bamboo, etc.
2. Civil sludge, municipal sludge, industrial sludge, etc.
3. MSW
Reactor Size Φ800 Φ1000 Φ1300 Φ1700
Pattern Horizontal & Rotary
Heating Materials Charcoal, Wood, Diesel, Natural Nas, LPG, Biomass, etc.
Total Power 40 kw/h 55 kw/h 60 kw/h 72 kw/h
Floor Area (L*W*H) 30m*15m*7m 35*15*7m 45*15*10m 50*15*10m
Operating Pressure Constant Pressure
Cooling Method Recycling Water Cooling
Service Life 5-8 Years

How to Make Charcoal with Biomass Pyrolysis Machine?

We would like to introduce the biomass pyrolysis process in 4 parts.

1. Pre-treatment

In order to improve the charcoal yield, we advise that the water content of raw material is less than 15% and the size is between 8 mm to 15 mm. For this purpose, we will equip dryer, scatter, crusher, etc. if you need. Then pre-heat the biochar reactor.

Dryer for Biochar Production Equipment

2. Biomass Pyrolysis Process

The prepared raw materials will be delivered to the carbonization furnace under high temperature. By the way, we have a unique design, namely “one-fire-two-steps”. It can dry the raw material first before carbonization. When the temperature reaches up to 250 ℃, the material is broken down and releases gas. At 300 ℃, charcoal will be generated and discharged. It takes about 15-20 minutes. Meanwhile, the gas goes through the condensing system to extract tar and wood vinegar. And the combustible gas will go back to heat the furnace in 30 minutes. It means you can reduce or even stop heating fuel about 1.5-2 hours. Here is a video for your reference.

3. De-dusting System

This system is used to process the off-gas. In general, we will equip cyclone dust remover, spray dust collector and water spray tower, etc., which can effectively make the tail gas to meet the emission standard.

De-dusting System for Biochar Production Plant
De-dusting System

4. Discharging System

This section is used to discharge charcoal safely. We design a fully-sealed water cooling system to cool down the charcoal to 30 ℃ or less soon to save your waiting time. Also, you can feed while discharging to improve the working efficiency.

To conclude, the charcoal production plant from Beston Group is more eco-friendly, effective, safe and easy to operate. Compared to traditional kilns, it has wide applications to convert coconut shell, bamboo, garden waste, etc. into charcoal. That’s why we have customers around the world, for example, TurkeySpain, Ukraine, Russia, etc. If you have interests in our charcoal machine, please contact us now!

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Please specify your requirement by referring to the following aspects:

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